The crackdown could also see the introduction of levies on busy roads for owners of the most polluting vehicles.
And hopes of a major scrappage scheme to help those who were encouraged to buy diesels appear to have been dashed.
The strategy will be launched today by ministers Michael Gove and Chris Grayling.
It was forced on the Government by defeat in a High Court case on air pollution.
From 2040, drivers will be able to buy electric cars only – ending the near 150-year reign of the internal combustion engine.
Mr Gove today hailed Britain as leading the world, joining France and Norway on the path to a low emission future on Britain's roads.